## Activity Ratios

Activity ratios, also known as efficiency or turnover ratios, are financial metrics used to evaluate how effectively a company utilizes its assets and resources to generate sales and profits. These ratios help analysts, investors, and management assess how well the company is managing its assets, accounts receivables, and inventory in relation to its revenue. High activity ratios generally indicate better management of assets, while low ratios may signal inefficiencies.

Some common activity ratios include:

- Inventory turnover ratio: This ratio shows how quickly a company sells its inventory during a specific period. It is calculated as:

\(\text{Inventory Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Cost of Goods Sold}}{\text{Average Inventory}} \) - Accounts receivable turnover ratio: This ratio measures how efficiently a company collects outstanding payments from its customers. It is calculated as:

\(\text{Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Credit Sales}}{\text{Average Accounts Receivable}} \) - Accounts payable turnover ratio: This ratio indicates how quickly a company pays its suppliers. It is calculated as:

\(\text{Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Cost of Goods Sold}}{\text{Average Accounts Payablee}} \) - Asset turnover ratio: This ratio shows how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate sales. It is calculated as:

\(\text{Asset Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Sales}}{\text{Average Total Assets}} \) - Fixed asset turnover ratio: This ratio measures how effectively a company uses its fixed assets (e.g., property, plant, and equipment) to generate sales. It is calculated as:

\(\text{Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Sales}}{\text{Average Net Fixed Assets}} \) - Working capital turnover ratio: This ratio shows how efficiently a company uses its working capital (current assets minus current liabilities) to generate sales. It is calculated as:

\(\text{Working Capital Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Sales}}{\text{Average Working Capital}} \)

Activity ratios can vary widely depending on the industry and the nature of the company’s operations, so it’s essential to compare them against industry benchmarks and historical performance to assess a company’s efficiency effectively.

## Example of Activity Ratios

Let’s take a hypothetical example to illustrate the calculation and interpretation of activity ratios for a company.

Imagine Company ABC, which operates in the manufacturing industry, has the following financial information for the year:

- Net Sales: $1,000,000
- Cost of Goods Sold: $600,000
- Net Credit Sales: $950,000
- Average Inventory: $100,000
- Average Accounts Receivable: $200,000
- Average Accounts Payable: $150,000
- Average Total Assets: $500,000
- Average Net Fixed Assets: $300,000
- Average Working Capital: $50,000

Now, let’s calculate some activity ratios for Company ABC:

- Inventory Turnover Ratio:

\(\text{Inventory Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Cost of Goods Sold}}{\text{Average Inventory}} = \frac{600,000}{100,000} = 6 \) - Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio:

\(\text{Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Credit Sales}}{\text{Average Accounts Receivable}} = \frac{950,000}{200,000} = 4.75 \) - Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio:

\(\text{Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Cost of Goods Sold}}{\text{Average Accounts Payable}} = \frac{600,000}{150,000} = 4 \) - Asset Turnover Ratio:

\(\text{Asset Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Sales}}{\text{Average Total Assetsy}} = \frac{1,000,000}{500,000} = 2 \) - Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio:

\(\text{Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Sales}}{\text{Average Net Fixed Assets}} = \frac{1,000,000}{300,000} = 3.33 \) - Working Capital Turnover Ratio:

\(\text{Working Capital Turnover Ratio} = \frac{\text{Net Sales}}{\text{Average Working Capital}} = \frac{1,000,000}{50,000} = 20 \)

These ratios indicate how efficiently Company ABC is utilizing its assets and resources. For instance, the inventory turnover ratio of 6 means that the company sells its entire inventory six times per year. The higher this number, the better the company is at managing its inventory. Similarly, the accounts receivable turnover ratio of 4.75 indicates that the company collects its outstanding payments from customers approximately 4.75 times per year.

It’s important to compare these ratios to industry averages and the company’s historical performance to assess Company ABC’s efficiency and effectiveness accurately.