Operating assets, also known as operating resources, are the assets that a company uses to generate revenue as part of its core operations. They are critical for the day-to-day functioning of the business and are directly involved in the company’s primary revenue-generating activities.
Examples of operating assets include:
- Cash and Cash Equivalents: This includes all cash on hand and in banks, as well as any highly liquid investments that can be easily converted into cash, such as Treasury bills or money market funds.
- Accounts Receivable: These are amounts that are owed to the company by its customers for goods or services that have been delivered but not yet paid for.
- Inventory: This includes raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods that a company has on hand.
- Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E): This includes land, buildings, machinery, vehicles, and other physical assets that a company uses in its operations.
- Intangible Assets: This can include patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other non-physical assets that a company uses in its operations, especially for companies in technology or creative industries.
It’s important to note that not all assets on a company’s balance sheet are operating assets. Non-operating assets, also known as investments or redundant assets, are not necessary for a company’s day-to-day operations but may still provide value, such as investment securities, idle land, or a building held for speculative purposes.
Operating assets are important as they directly contribute to a company’s ability to generate revenue. They are often considered when assessing a company’s operating efficiency, profitability, and overall financial health.
Example of Operating Assets
Let’s consider a fictional manufacturing company, “XYZ Manufacturing Co.”, to understand how operating assets work:
- Cash and Cash Equivalents: XYZ Manufacturing Co. has $200,000 in its bank account. This cash can be used to fund day-to-day operations such as buying raw materials or paying employees.
- Accounts Receivable: XYZ has sold goods worth $150,000 to its customers who have not yet paid for these goods. These amounts owed by the customers are counted as accounts receivable and considered as an operating asset.
- Inventory: XYZ holds inventory including raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods. Let’s say the total value of their inventory is $300,000.
- Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E): XYZ owns a manufacturing plant, machinery, and equipment which are integral to their manufacturing process. The value of this PP&E might be $2 million after accounting for depreciation.
- Intangible Assets: XYZ has patented manufacturing processes and owns a valuable trademark. These are intangible assets used in its operations. Let’s assume these are valued at $500,000.
So, the total value of XYZ Manufacturing Co.’s operating assets would be $3.15 million ($200,000 cash + $150,000 accounts receivable + $300,000 inventory + $2 million PP&E + $500,000 intangible assets).
These operating assets are crucial for XYZ to produce and sell its products, thereby generating revenue for the company. Investors and analysts would assess these operating assets to understand the company’s operational efficiency, financial health, and potential growth prospects.