## Growth Rate

The growth rate is a measure of the increase or decrease of a specific variable within a specific time period and context. It’s often expressed as a percentage and is typically calculated on an annual basis, although it can be calculated for different periods.

Growth rates are used in many areas, including business and finance, economics, and biology. Here are some examples:

**Economic Growth Rate**: This is a measure of the increase in a country’s real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the value of the goods and services produced by an economy over a certain period. It’s an indicator of the economic health of a country.**Company or Business Growth Rate**: Businesses often calculate growth rates for sales, profits, market share, and other key performance indicators to evaluate their performance and to set and monitor goals.**Population Growth Rate**: In demography, the growth rate often refers to the change in population size over time, taking into account factors like births, deaths, and migration.**Investment Growth Rate**: For investments, the growth rate could refer to the compound annual growth rate (CAGR), which measures the mean annual growth rate of an investment over a specified time period longer than one year.

The general formula to calculate growth rate is:

\(\text{Growth Rate} = \frac{\text{Final Value} – \text{Initial Value}}{\text{Initial Value}} \times 100\% \)

This formula calculates the relative growth as a percentage of the initial value. If you want to calculate the average annual growth rate over multiple years (CAGR), the formula is slightly more complex as it takes into account compounding.

## Example of the Growth Rate

Imagine you own a small business, and you made $150,000 in sales in 2022. By the end of 2023, your sales have increased to $180,000. You want to know your sales growth rate from 2022 to 2023.

Here’s how you can calculate it:

- Subtract the initial sales (for 2022) from the final sales (for 2023): $180,000 – $150,000 = $30,000. This is your absolute growth.
- Divide the absolute growth by the initial sales: $30,000 / $150,000 = 0.20.
- Multiply by 100 to get the percentage: 0.20 * 100 = 20%.

So, your sales growth rate from 2022 to 2023 is 20%.

Now, let’s consider a population growth example:

The population of a city was 500,000 in 2020. By the end of 2023, the population had grown to 550,000. The population growth rate can be calculated as follows:

- Subtract the initial population (for 2020) from the final population (for 2023): 550,000 – 500,000 = 50,000.
- Divide the growth by the initial population: 50,000 / 500,000 = 0.10.
- Multiply by 100 to get the percentage: 0.10 * 100 = 10%.

So, the city had a population growth rate of 10% from 2020 to 2023.