## Incremental Cash Flow

Incremental cash flow refers to the additional cash flows, both inflows and outflows, that a company expects to generate by undertaking a new investment project. These cash flows are net of any existing cash flows the company is already generating.

For example, if a company is considering opening a new manufacturing facility, the incremental cash flow would be the additional revenues from the new products manufactured less any additional costs associated with running the new facility (like labor, utilities, maintenance, etc.), and less any revenues lost from other facilities due to the opening of the new one.

In simpler terms, incremental cash flow provides the change in a company’s cash flows that would occur if a proposed project is accepted. It’s a key component in capital budgeting analysis, as it helps determine whether a project will be profitable, based on the projected future cash flows. By comparing the incremental cash flow with the cost of the investment, a company can evaluate the potential profitability and make informed decisions about whether to proceed with the project.

It’s important to note that incremental cash flows consider both the operating cash flows (revenues and expenses) and the changes in net working capital and capital spending (like the initial investment and any terminal or salvage value).

## Example of Incremental Cash Flow

Let’s consider a simple example to illustrate incremental cash flow:

Suppose a company, XYZ Corp., is considering expanding its production line by investing in a new machine. The machine costs $100,000, and it’s expected to last 5 years with no salvage value at the end. Here’s how XYZ Corp. would calculate the incremental cash flows:

- Initial Investment: The first incremental cash flow is the purchase of the machine, which is a cash outflow of $100,000.
- Operating Cash Flows: Let’s say the machine will generate additional sales of $50,000 per year, and the direct operating costs (like labor, materials, and maintenance) will be $20,000 per year. So, the incremental operating cash flows would be $50,000 – $20,000 = $30,000 per year.
- Changes in Net working capital: If the new machine requires an additional investment in working capital (like additional inventories or receivables), that would be a cash outflow. But in this simple example, let’s assume that there’s no change in net working capital.
- Terminal Cash Flow: Since the machine has no salvage value at the end of 5 years, there’s no terminal cash inflow.

So, XYZ Corp.’s incremental cash flows for this project would look like this:

- Year 0: -$100,000 (initial investment)
- Year 1: $30,000 (operating cash flow)
- Year 2: $30,000 (operating cash flow)
- Year 3: $30,000 (operating cash flow)
- Year 4: $30,000 (operating cash flow)
- Year 5: $30,000 (operating cash flow)

XYZ Corp. would then use these incremental cash flows to perform a net present value (NPV) or internal rate of return (IRR) analysis to decide whether the machine is a good investment. If the NPV is positive (or the IRR exceeds the company’s required rate of return), the project would typically be accepted; otherwise, it would be rejected.