Minimum Cash Balance
A minimum cash balance is the lowest amount of cash that a company or individual aims to keep on hand at all times. This cash serves as a buffer against unexpected expenses or market fluctuations and is part of a larger strategy for managing cash flow. If the actual cash balance drops below this minimum level, the company or individual might need to liquidate assets or borrow funds to make up the shortfall.
For companies, the size of the minimum cash balance is typically determined by factors such as the predictability of cash inflows and outflows, the ability to access credit, and the company’s risk tolerance. For instance, a company with very predictable cash flows and easy access to credit might opt for a lower minimum cash balance, whereas a company with volatile cash flows and limited access to credit might opt for a higher minimum cash balance.
Similarly, an individual might choose to maintain a minimum cash balance in a checking or savings account to cover unexpected expenses, like car repairs or medical bills. The recommended size of this “emergency fund” varies, but many financial advisors suggest keeping enough cash to cover three to six months’ worth of living expenses.
In both cases, the purpose of a minimum cash balance is to provide financial stability and flexibility.
Example of a Minimum Cash Balance
Suppose Company XYZ operates in an industry with fairly predictable cash flows, and it also has good access to credit if necessary. After considering its typical operating expenses, the variability of its revenues, and the potential for unexpected costs, Company XYZ decides that it wants to keep a minimum cash balance of $500,000 at all times.
During a given month, if Company XYZ’s cash balance starts at $600,000 and its net cash flow for the month (i.e., cash inflows minus cash outflows) is -$150,000, then its cash balance at the end of the month would be $450,000. This is below the company’s minimum cash balance, so the company might decide to draw on its line of credit to bring its cash balance back up to $500,000.
In a different scenario, let’s say the company starts the month with a cash balance of $600,000, but its net cash flow for the month is -$50,000. The cash balance at the end of the month would be $550,000, which is still above the company’s minimum cash balance. In this case, the company wouldn’t need to do anything because it’s still within its target range for cash on hand.
This is a simplified example, but it illustrates the concept of a minimum cash balance. In reality, a company would also need to consider factors like the timing of cash inflows and outflows and the potential for unexpected changes in its business environment.