Charitable Remainder Trust
A Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT) is a type of irrevocable trust that allows the grantor (the person creating the trust) to receive income from the trust for a specified period or for their lifetime, after which the remaining trust assets are distributed to one or more designated charitable organizations.
In a CRT, the grantor contributes assets, such as cash, securities, or real estate, to the trust. These assets are typically sold by the trust, and the proceeds are invested to generate income. The grantor receives regular payments from the trust, either as a fixed amount (annuity) or a percentage of the trust’s value (unitrust amount), depending on the type of CRT.
There are two main types of Charitable Remainder Trusts:
- Charitable Remainder Annuity Trust (CRAT): In a CRAT, the trust pays a fixed amount (annuity) to the grantor or another non-charitable beneficiary each year, regardless of the trust’s investment performance. The annuity amount is determined as a percentage of the initial fair market value of the assets contributed to the trust.
- Charitable Remainder Unitrust (CRUT): In a CRUT, the trust pays a variable amount to the grantor or another non-charitable beneficiary each year, based on a fixed percentage of the trust’s annual fair market value. This means that the payments can increase or decrease based on the trust’s investment performance.
Charitable Remainder Trusts offer several benefits, including:
- Tax benefits: CRTs can provide significant tax benefits for the grantor. When the trust is created, the grantor may be eligible for an income tax deduction based on the present value of the charitable remainder interest. Additionally, any capital gains taxes on the sale of appreciated assets within the trust are generally deferred, allowing for greater investment growth.
- Income stream: CRTs can provide a stable income stream for the grantor or other non-charitable beneficiaries for their lifetime or a specified period, depending on the trust’s terms.
- Philanthropic goals: CRTs enable the grantor to support their favorite charitable organizations after their death or at the end of the specified period while still providing for their own financial needs during their lifetime.
- Asset protection: Since CRTs are irrevocable trusts, the assets contributed to the trust are generally protected from the grantor’s creditors, ensuring that the intended beneficiaries ultimately receive the remaining assets.
It is essential to work with an experienced estate planning attorney and a tax advisor when creating a Charitable Remainder Trust, as the rules governing these trusts can be complex, and careful planning is required to achieve the desired goals.
Example of a Charitable Remainder Trust
Let’s consider a hypothetical example to illustrate how a Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT) works:
John is a retired business owner with a net worth of $5 million. He owns a significant amount of highly appreciated stock in a company he founded, which is currently valued at $1 million. John is concerned about the capital gains taxes he would incur if he were to sell the stock. Additionally, he wants to create an income stream for himself during his lifetime and support his favorite charity, the XYZ Environmental Foundation, after his passing.
John decides to create a Charitable Remainder Unitrust (CRUT) by transferring the $1 million worth of appreciated stock to the trust. The trust sells the stock tax-free and invests the proceeds in a diversified investment portfolio.
The terms of the CRUT specify that John will receive 5% of the trust’s fair market value annually for the rest of his life. Assuming the trust’s initial value is $1 million, John will receive $50,000 in the first year. If the trust’s value increases or decreases in subsequent years, John’s payments will adjust accordingly.
When John passes away, the remaining assets in the trust, valued at $1.2 million at the time of his death, are distributed to the XYZ Environmental Foundation.
Benefits of the CRUT in this example:
- Tax benefits: By creating the CRUT, John avoids paying immediate capital gains taxes on the sale of the appreciated stock. He also receives an income tax deduction based on the present value of the charitable remainder interest.
- Income stream: The CRUT provides John with a steady income stream during his lifetime, which can help supplement his retirement income.
- Philanthropic goals: After John’s passing, the remaining trust assets are distributed to the XYZ Environmental Foundation, supporting the charity’s mission and programs.
- Asset protection: The assets in the CRUT are protected from John’s creditors, ensuring that the intended charitable beneficiary ultimately receives the remaining assets.
This example demonstrates how a Charitable Remainder Trust, specifically a Charitable Remainder Unitrust, can be used to achieve multiple financial and philanthropic goals, including deferring capital gains taxes, creating an income stream for the grantor, and providing a future gift to a charitable organization.