## Market Value Ratios

Market value ratios are financial metrics used by investors and analysts to evaluate a company’s financial performance in relation to its market value. These ratios provide insights into how the market perceives the value of a company’s stock.

Some commonly used market value ratios include:

**Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio)**: This ratio is calculated by dividing the current market price of a share by the earnings per share (EPS) over a certain period (usually the last 12 months). It provides an indication of how much investors are willing to pay for each dollar of a company’s earnings.**Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio)**: This ratio compares a company’s market value (the share price times the number of shares outstanding) to its book value (total assets minus total liabilities). It indicates how much investors are willing to pay for each dollar of a company’s net assets.**Price-to-Sales Ratio (P/S Ratio)**: This ratio is calculated by dividing the company’s market capitalization by its total sales over a certain period (usually the last 12 months). It shows how much investors are willing to pay for each dollar of a company’s sales.**Dividend Yield**: This ratio is the annual dividend payment per share divided by the market price per share. It shows the percentage return on the dividend income relative to the price of the stock.

Each of these ratios provides a different perspective on the market’s valuation of a company, and they can be used together to get a more complete picture. However, they should be used in conjunction with other financial metrics and information about the company and its industry to make investment decisions.

## Example of Market Value Ratios

Let’s consider an example using a fictional company called GreenTech Inc.

**Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio)**: Let’s say GreenTech’s current market price per share is $20 and its earnings per share (EPS) over the last 12 months is $2. The P/E ratio would be calculated as:

P/E Ratio = Market Price per Share / EPS P/E Ratio = $20 / $2 = 10

This means investors are willing to pay $10 for each dollar of GreenTech’s earnings.**Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio)**: Suppose GreenTech’s total assets are $50 million and its total liabilities are $20 million, giving it a book value of $30 million. If there are 1 million shares outstanding, the book value per share is $30. The P/B ratio would be:

P/B Ratio = Market Price per Share / Book Value per Share

P/B Ratio = $20 / $30 = 0.67

This means that the market is pricing each dollar of GreenTech’s net assets at $0.67.**Price-to-Sales Ratio (P/S Ratio)**: If GreenTech’s total sales over the last 12 months were $15 million and it has 1 million shares outstanding, its sales per share is $15. The P/S ratio would be:

P/S Ratio = Market Price per Share / Sales per Share

P/S Ratio = $20 / $15 = 1.33

This means investors are willing to pay $1.33 for each dollar of GreenTech’s sales.**Dividend Yield**: If GreenTech paid a dividend of $1 per share over the last year, its dividend yield would be:

Dividend Yield = Annual Dividend per Share / Market Price per Share

Dividend Yield = $1 / $20 = 0.05 or 5%

This means that the return on the dividend income relative to the price of the stock is 5%.

These ratios help investors evaluate whether GreenTech’s stock might be overvalued or undervalued. However, they should be compared with the same ratios for other companies in the same industry, as well as considering GreenTech’s own historical ratios and future prospects, to make informed investment decisions.