## Financial Ratios

Financial ratios are mathematical comparisons of various financial data points from a company’s financial statements (like the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement). They provide a way to standardize financial data, which allows for more meaningful comparisons across different companies and industries, and over time.

Here are some common categories of financial ratios:

**Liquidity Ratios:**These ratios measure the ability of a company to meet its short-term financial obligations. Examples include the current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities) and the quick ratio (cash, marketable securities, and receivables divided by current liabilities).**Profitability Ratios:**These ratios measure a company’s ability to generate profits and margins. Examples include the net profit margin (net income divided by total revenue), the return on assets (net income divided by total assets), and the return on equity (net income divided by shareholder’s equity).**Solvency Ratios:**These ratios measure a company’s ability to meet its long-term financial obligations. Examples include the debt-to-equity ratio (total debt divided by total equity) and the equity ratio (shareholder’s equity divided by total assets).**Efficiency Ratios:**These ratios measure how effectively a company uses its resources. Examples include the asset turnover ratio (total revenue divided by total assets) and the inventory turnover ratio (cost of goods sold divided by average inventory during the period).**Valuation Ratios:**These ratios measure the financial attractiveness of a company as an investment. Examples include the price-to-earnings ratio (market value per share divided by earnings per share) and the price-to-book ratio (market value per share divided by book value per share).

Each ratio offers a unique perspective on a company’s financial health and performance. They are most meaningful when used in combination and when compared over time or against industry norms or competitors.

## Example of Financial Ratios

Let’s look at a few key ratios using some hypothetical figures from a company’s financial statements:

**Current Ratio (Liquidity Ratio):**- Current Assets: $100,000
- Current Liabilities: $50,000
- \(\text{Current Ratio} = \frac{\text{Current Assets}}{\text{Current Liabilities}} = \frac{\$100,000}{\$50,000} = 2.0 \)
- Interpretation: The company has $2 of current assets for every $1 of current liabilities, suggesting it is well-positioned to meet its short-term obligations.

**Return on Equity (Profitability Ratio):**- Net Income: $10,000
- Shareholder’s Equity: $50,000
- \(\text{Return on Equity} = \frac{\text{Net Income}}{\text{Shareholder’s Equity}} = \frac{\$10,000}{\$50,000} = \text{0.20, or 20%} \)
- Interpretation: The company generates a return of 20% on the equity invested by the shareholders.

**Debt-to-Equity Ratio (Solvency Ratio):**- Total Debt: $25,000
- Total Equity: $75,000
- \(\text{Debt-to-Equity Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Debt}}{\text{Total Equity}} = \frac{\$25,000}{\$75,000} = 0.33 \)
- Interpretation: The company has $0.33 of debt for every $1 of equity, which might suggest it has a moderate level of financial risk.

**Inventory Turnover (Efficiency Ratio):**- Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): $40,000
- Average Inventory: $10,000
- \(\text{Inventory Turnover} = \frac{\text{COGS}}{\text{Average Inventory}} = \frac{\$40,000}{\$10,000} = 4.0 \)
- Interpretation: The company sells through its inventory four times during the period.

**Price-to-Earnings Ratio (Valuation Ratio):**- Market Value Per Share: $20
- Earnings Per Share: $2
- \(\text{Price-to-Earnings Ratio} = \frac{\text{Market Value Per Share}}{\text{Earnings Per Share}} = \frac{\$20}{\$2} = 10 \)
- Interpretation: Investors are willing to pay $10 for each $1 of earnings, indicating how the market values the company.

Remember, these ratios are most useful when compared to other companies in the same industry, to industry averages, or to the company’s past ratios. Each ratio provides a snapshot of the company’s financial health from a different perspective.