## Balance Sheet Formulas

There are several important balance sheet formulas used to analyze the financial health and performance of a business. Here are some key formulas:

- Current Ratio: Measures a company’s ability to pay short-term obligations using its short-term assets.
- \(\text{Current Ratio} = \frac{\text{Current Assets}}{\text{Current Liabilities}} \)

- Quick Ratio (Acid-Test Ratio): Measures a company’s ability to pay short-term obligations using its most liquid assets (excluding inventory).
- \(\text{Quick Ratio} = \frac{\text{Current Assets – Inventory}}{\text{Current Liabilities}} \)

- Debt to Equity Ratio: Indicates the proportion of debt and equity used to finance a company’s assets.
- \(\text{Debt to Equity Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Liabilities}}{\text{Total Equity}} \)

- Equity Ratio: Shows the proportion of a company’s total assets financed by its shareholders’ equity.
- \(\text{Equity Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Equitys}}{\text{Total Assets}} \)

- Debt Ratio: Indicates the proportion of a company’s assets financed by debt.
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Liabilities}}{\text{Total Assets}} \)

- Working Capital: Represents the difference between a company’s current assets and current liabilities.
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = \text{Current Assets – Current Liabilities}\)

- Return on Equity (ROE): Measures the profitability of a company in relation to the shareholders’ equity.
- \(\text{Return on Equity} = \frac{\text{Net Income}}{\text{Total Equity}} \)

- Return on Assets (ROA): Measures how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate profits.
- \(\text{Return on Assets} = \frac{\text{Net Income}}{\text{Total Assets}} \)

These formulas provide insight into a company’s liquidity, solvency, efficiency, and profitability, helping investors and stakeholders make informed decisions about the financial health and performance of the business.

## Example of Balance Sheet Formulas

Let’s assume we have a hypothetical company with the following financial information (all numbers in thousands of dollars):

- Current Assets: $10,000
- Inventory: $2,000
- Current Liabilities: $5,000
- Total Liabilities: $15,000
- Total Equity: $20,000
- Total Assets: $35,000
- Net Income: $5,000

Now, let’s calculate some of the balance sheet ratios mentioned earlier:

- Current Ratio:
- \(\text{Current Ratio} = \frac{\text{Current Assets}}{\text{Current Liabilities}} \)
- \(\text{Current Ratio} = \frac{\text{10,000}}{\text{5,000}} \)
- \(\text{Current Ratio} = 2 \)

- Quick Ratio (Acid-Test Ratio):
- \(\text{Quick Ratio} = \frac{\text{Current Assets – Inventory}}{\text{Current Liabilities}} \)
- \(\text{Quick Ratio} = \frac{10,000 – 2,000}{5,000} \)
- \(\text{Quick Ratio} = \frac{8,000}{5,000} \)
- \(\text{Quick Ratio} = 1.6 \)

- Debt to Equity Ratio:
- \(\text{Debt to Equity Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Liabilities}}{\text{Total Equity}} \)
- \(\text{Debt to Equity Ratio} = \frac{15,000}{20,000} \)
- \(\text{Debt to Equity Ratio} = 0.75 \)

- Equity Ratio:
- \(\text{Equity Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Equitys}}{\text{Total Assets}} \)
- \(\text{Equity Ratio} = \frac{20,000}{35,000} \)
- \(\text{Equity Ratio} = 0.57 \)

- Debt Ratio:
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = \frac{\text{Total Liabilities}}{\text{Total Assets}} \)
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = \frac{15,000}{35,000} \)
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = 0.43 \)

- Working Capital:
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = \text{Current Assets – Current Liabilities}\)
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = 10,000 – 5,000\)
- \(\text{Debt Ratio} = 5,000 \)

- Return on Equity (ROE):
- \(\text{Return on Equity} = \frac{\text{Net Income}}{\text{Total Equity}} \)
- \(\text{Return on Equity} = \frac{5,000}{20,000} \)
- \(\text{Return on Equity} = 0.25 \text{ or 25%} \)

- Return on Assets (ROA):
- \(\text{Return on Assets} = \frac{\text{Net Income}}{\text{Total Assets}} \)
- \(\text{Return on Assets} = \frac{5,000}{35,000} \)
- \(\text{Return on Assets} = 0.143 \text{ or 14.3%} \)

These calculations give us insight into the financial health and performance of the hypothetical company. For example, the current ratio of 2 indicates that the company has enough current assets to cover its current liabilities twice over, while the return on equity of 25% shows that the company is effectively utilizing its shareholders’ equity to generate profits.