Accounting Journal Entries
Accounting journal entries are the records of financial transactions in a company’s accounting system. Each journal entry represents a single business transaction and consists of at least one debit and one credit to balance the entry, in accordance with the double-entry bookkeeping system. Journal entries are used to record and track financial events and serve as the basis for creating financial statements and reports.
A journal entry typically includes the following information:
- Date: The date when the transaction occurred or was recorded.
- Account Titles: The names of the accounts affected by the transaction, such as cash, accounts receivable, inventory, revenue, expenses, etc.
- Debit or Credit: The amount of the transaction recorded as a debit or a credit for each affected account, following the rules of double-entry bookkeeping.
- Description: A brief explanation or description of the transaction to provide context and clarify the nature of the entry.
When recording a journal entry, a company must follow the double-entry bookkeeping system, which requires that for every transaction:
- At least one account is debited, and at least one account is credited.
- The total amount of debits must equal the total amount of credits.
This system ensures that the accounting equation (Assets = Liabilities + Equity) remains in balance after each transaction. Journal entries are posted to the general ledger, which is a summary of all the company’s accounts, and are used to create trial balances, financial statements, and other financial reports.
Example of Accounting Journal Entries
Let’s consider a hypothetical example of a company called “CleanCuts Landscaping” that provides lawn care and landscaping services. CleanCuts completes a job for a client and invoices them $2,000 for the services provided. Here’s how CleanCuts would record this transaction in a journal entry:
Date: April 15, 2023
|Description: Invoiced client for landscaping services provided.
In this journal entry, CleanCuts Landscaping debits the Accounts Receivable account for $2,000, which increases the asset, as the client owes the company money for the services rendered. Simultaneously, the company credits the Service Revenue account for $2,000, which increases the equity, as the company has earned revenue from providing landscaping services.
Now let’s assume the client pays the invoice in full on April 30, 2023. CleanCuts would record the payment with another journal entry:
Date: April 30, 2023
|Description: Received payment from client for landscaping services provided.
In this journal entry, CleanCuts Landscaping debits the Cash account for $2,000, which increases the asset, as the company has received cash from the client. Simultaneously, the company credits the Accounts Receivable account for $2,000, which decreases the asset, as the client has paid the outstanding balance, and the company no longer has a receivable from them.