TCP CPA Practice Questions Explained: Municipal Bonds

Municipal Bonds

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In this video, we walk through 5 TCP practice teaching about the risks associated with investing in municipal bonds. These questions are from TCP content area 1 on the AICPA CPA exam blueprints: Tax Compliance and Planning for Individuals and Personal Financial Planning.

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Municipal Bonds

Municipal bonds, commonly known as “munis,” are debt securities issued by states, cities, counties, and other governmental entities to fund day-to-day obligations and to finance public projects such as schools, highways, hospitals, sewers, and libraries. Unlike corporate bonds, which are issued by companies, municipal bonds offer certain tax advantages that can make them particularly attractive to investors in high tax brackets. Here’s a detailed exploration of municipal bonds, comparing them with corporate bonds.

Tax Advantages

One of the primary attractions of municipal bonds is their tax-exempt status. The interest income generated from most municipal bonds is exempt from federal income taxes, and if the bonds are issued within the state where the investor resides, the interest may also be exempt from state and local taxes. This triple tax exemption makes municipal bonds highly attractive to investors in higher tax brackets. For example, an investor in a 35% tax bracket effectively receives a higher yield on a municipal bond than from a taxable bond offering the same nominal rate.

Types of Municipal Bonds

Municipal bonds are broadly categorized into two types: general obligation bonds and revenue bonds. General obligation bonds are backed by the full faith and credit of the issuing municipality, which has the power to tax residents to pay bondholders. Revenue bonds, however, are secured by specific revenue sources, such as the fees generated from a toll bridge or a water utility. These bonds are only as secure as the revenue-generating project they finance, making their stability dependent on the project’s success.

Comparison with Corporate Bonds

While municipal bonds generally offer lower interest rates compared to corporate bonds, the tax savings can offset this difference, particularly for those in higher tax brackets. Corporate bonds, issued by companies to raise capital, typically offer higher yields to compensate for their higher risk, including the risk of bankruptcy, which is not a concern for government entities issuing municipal bonds. However, corporate bonds provide more diversity in terms of industries and risk levels, potentially offering greater flexibility and higher returns for risk-tolerant investors.

Risks of Municipal Bonds

Despite their safe reputation, municipal bonds do carry risks:

  • Credit Risk: While default rates are significantly lower in municipal bonds compared to corporate bonds, they are not zero. Economic downturns or mismanaged budgets can affect a municipality’s ability to meet its obligations.
  • Interest Rate Risk: Like all bonds, municipal bonds are susceptible to interest rate fluctuations. If interest rates rise, the value of existing bonds with lower rates falls.
  • Liquidity Risk: Some municipal bonds, especially those from smaller issuers, can be less liquid than corporate bonds, making them harder to sell at a fair price quickly.
  • Political and Legislative Risk: Changes in tax laws or political instability can affect the value of municipal bonds. For instance, a change in tax structures might reduce the attractiveness of the tax exemptions that municipal bonds offer.


Municipal bonds are a staple in many investment portfolios, especially those of higher-income investors who benefit most from the tax exemptions. While generally considered safer than corporate bonds, they are not without risks, and the wise investor will weigh these risks against the potential benefits. As with all investments, diversification and careful analysis are key to managing potential risks and achieving financial goals.

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