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How to Calculate the Carrying Amount of Equity Method Investments

How to Calculate the Carrying Amount of Equity Method Investments

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Introduction

Brief Introduction to Equity Method Investments

In this article, we’ll cover how to calculate the carrying amount of equity method investments. Equity method investments represent a method of accounting used by companies to assess and report their investments in other entities over which they have significant influence but not outright control. This significant influence is typically assumed to exist when an investor holds between 20% and 50% of the voting stock of the investee. The equity method requires the investor to recognize its share of the investee’s profits or losses in its own financial statements, which impacts the carrying amount of the investment.

Importance of Accurately Calculating the Carrying Amount

Accurately calculating the carrying amount of equity method investments is crucial for several reasons. Firstly, it ensures that the financial statements reflect a true and fair view of the investor’s financial position. Secondly, precise calculations help in making informed business decisions, such as assessing the profitability and financial health of the investee. Lastly, compliance with accounting standards such as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is mandatory to avoid legal and financial repercussions.

Overview of the Article

This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide on how to calculate the carrying amount of equity method investments. We will start by understanding the equity method of accounting, including the criteria for its application. Next, we will delve into the initial recognition and measurement of such investments. Subsequent sections will cover the adjustments to the carrying amount due to the investee’s profits or losses, dividends received, and other relevant factors. We will also explore additional considerations like impairment and foreign currency impacts. Practical examples, case studies, common mistakes, and tips for accurate calculation will be provided to ensure a thorough understanding. Finally, we will conclude with a summary of key points and provide references for further reading.

Understanding the Equity Method of Accounting

Definition and Explanation of the Equity Method

The equity method of accounting is used when an investor has significant influence over an investee but does not have full control or joint control. Significant influence typically involves owning 20% to 50% of the voting stock of the investee. Under this method, the investment is initially recorded at cost, and subsequently, the carrying amount is adjusted to reflect the investor’s share of the investee’s net income or loss. The investor’s share of the investee’s profits or losses is recognized in the investor’s income statement, and dividends received from the investee are treated as a return on investment, reducing the carrying amount.

Criteria for Using the Equity Method (Significant Influence)

Significant influence is the key criterion for using the equity method. It is generally presumed when the investor holds 20% to 50% of the voting power of the investee. However, other factors can also indicate significant influence, such as:

  • Representation on the board of directors of the investee
  • Participation in policy-making processes
  • Material transactions between the investor and the investee
  • Interchange of managerial personnel
  • Provision of essential technical information

If the investor demonstrates significant influence despite holding less than 20% of the voting power, or lacks significant influence despite holding more than 20%, the equity method may still be applicable or inapplicable, respectively.

Differences Between Equity Method and Other Investment Accounting Methods

Understanding the differences between the equity method and other investment accounting methods, such as the fair value method and the cost method, is crucial for proper application:

Fair Value Method

  • Application: Used when the investor does not have significant influence over the investee (typically less than 20% ownership).
  • Measurement: Investments are initially recorded at cost and subsequently measured at fair value. Changes in fair value are recognized in the income statement.
  • Recognition: Dividends received are recognized as income.

Cost Method

  • Application: Also used when the investor does not have significant influence.
  • Measurement: Investments are recorded at cost. Income is recognized only when dividends are received from the investee.
  • Recognition: Dividends are recognized as income unless they represent a return on investment, in which case they reduce the carrying amount of the investment.

Equity Method

  • Application: Used when the investor has significant influence (generally 20% to 50% ownership).
  • Measurement: Investments are initially recorded at cost and adjusted for the investor’s share of the investee’s net income or loss.
  • Recognition: The investor’s share of the investee’s profits or losses is recognized in the investor’s income statement. Dividends received reduce the carrying amount of the investment.

By understanding these differences, investors can apply the correct accounting method, ensuring compliance with relevant accounting standards and accurate financial reporting.

Initial Recognition and Measurement

Determining the Initial Cost of the Investment

The initial cost of an equity method investment is determined by the purchase price paid by the investor to acquire the investee’s shares. This includes the direct costs of acquisition, such as purchase price, legal fees, and other transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition. The total initial cost is the sum of these expenditures, which forms the basis for the initial recognition of the investment.

Components of Initial Cost:

  • Purchase Price: The amount paid to acquire the investment.
  • Transaction Costs: Costs directly attributable to the acquisition, such as legal and consultancy fees.
  • Other Direct Costs: Any additional costs necessary to bring the investment to its present condition and location.

Recognizing the Initial Investment in Financial Statements

Once the initial cost is determined, the investment is recognized in the financial statements of the investor. This involves recording the investment at its initial cost on the balance sheet. The investment is classified as a non-current asset unless it is intended to be sold within one year, in which case it would be classified as a current asset.

Recognition Process:

  1. Record the Investment: The investment is recorded at its initial cost as a non-current asset on the balance sheet.
  2. Disclosure: Provide necessary disclosures related to the investment, including the basis of valuation and the nature of the investee.

Example of Journal Entries for Initial Recognition

To illustrate the process, consider an investor who acquires a 25% stake in an investee company for $500,000, including $20,000 in legal fees.

Journal Entry for Initial Recognition:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate (Non-Current Asset) $500,000
  • Credit: Cash/Bank $500,000

This journal entry records the acquisition of the investment, recognizing the initial cost on the balance sheet. The amount debited to the “Investment in Associate” account reflects the total cost incurred to acquire the 25% stake, including any transaction costs.

Example Scenario:

Investor A acquires 30% of the voting shares of Company B for $600,000. The acquisition also involves legal fees of $15,000 and consultancy fees of $10,000, bringing the total cost to $625,000.

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate (Non-Current Asset) $625,000
  • Credit: Cash/Bank $625,000

This entry shows the initial recognition of the investment in Company B, with the total initial cost recorded as an asset on the balance sheet. The debit to the “Investment in Associate” account reflects the total cost incurred, including the purchase price and transaction costs.

By following these steps, investors can ensure that their equity method investments are accurately recognized and measured in accordance with accounting standards, providing a true and fair view of their financial position.

Subsequent Measurement

Adjusting the Carrying Amount for the Investor’s Share of the Investee’s Profits and Losses

After the initial recognition, the carrying amount of an equity method investment must be adjusted to reflect the investor’s share of the investee’s net income or loss. This ensures that the carrying amount accurately represents the investor’s interest in the investee’s equity.

Steps for Adjustment:

  1. Determine the Investor’s Share of Profits or Losses: Calculate the investor’s share of the investee’s net income or loss based on the ownership percentage.
  2. Adjust the Carrying Amount: Increase the carrying amount for the investor’s share of the investee’s net income and decrease it for the share of net losses.

Dividends Received from the Investee

Dividends received from the investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment because they represent a return on investment. When dividends are received, they are treated as a reduction in the investment’s carrying amount rather than income.

Treatment of Dividends:

  • Dividends Received: Reduce the carrying amount of the investment.
  • Journal Entry for Dividends: Record the receipt of cash and reduce the investment account.

Example Calculations of Share of Profits/Losses and Adjustments to the Carrying Amount

Profit

Investor A owns 30% of Company B. Company B reports a net income of $200,000 for the year. Investor A’s share of the profit is:
Investor A’s Share of Profit = 30% x $200,000 = $60,000

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate $60,000
  • Credit: Income from Associate $60,000

This entry increases the carrying amount of the investment to reflect Investor A’s share of Company B’s profit.

Loss

If Company B reports a net loss of $150,000, Investor A’s share of the loss is:
Investor A’s Share of Loss = 30% x $150,000 = $45,000

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Loss from Associate $45,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $45,000

This entry decreases the carrying amount of the investment to reflect Investor A’s share of Company B’s loss.

Dividend

Company B declares and pays a dividend of $50,000. Investor A’s share of the dividend is:
Investor A’s Share of Dividend = 30% x $50,000 = $15,000

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Cash/Bank $15,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $15,000

This entry records the receipt of cash from dividends and reduces the carrying amount of the investment by the amount of the dividends received.

By following these steps and using accurate calculations, investors can ensure that their equity method investments are properly adjusted and reported, reflecting the true economic interest in their investees.

Adjustments to the Carrying Amount

Unrealized Intercompany Profits and Losses

Unrealized intercompany profits and losses arise from transactions between the investor and the investee that have not yet been realized through sales to third parties. These need to be eliminated to prevent overstating the profits in consolidated financial statements.

Steps for Adjustment:

  1. Identify Unrealized Profits or Losses: Determine the amount of profit or loss that remains unrealized within the group.
  2. Eliminate Unrealized Amounts: Adjust the carrying amount of the investment to eliminate the unrealized portion.

Example:

Investor A sells inventory to Company B, a 30% owned investee, at a profit of $10,000. Company B has not yet sold the inventory to a third party by the end of the reporting period.

Journal Entry to Eliminate Unrealized Profit:

  • Debit: Income from Associate $3,000 (30% of $10,000)
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $3,000

This entry reduces the income from the associate and the carrying amount of the investment by the investor’s share of the unrealized profit.

Impairment Considerations and Loss Recognition

Impairment occurs when the carrying amount of the investment exceeds its recoverable amount. Impairment losses must be recognized to reflect the decline in the value of the investment.

Steps for Impairment Testing:

  1. Assess Indicators of Impairment: Identify if there are any indicators suggesting that the investment might be impaired.
  2. Calculate Recoverable Amount: Determine the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use.
  3. Recognize Impairment Loss: If the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, recognize an impairment loss.

Example:

Investor A determines that the carrying amount of the investment in Company B exceeds its recoverable amount by $20,000.

Journal Entry for Impairment Loss:

  • Debit: Impairment Loss $20,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $20,000

This entry records the impairment loss and reduces the carrying amount of the investment accordingly.

Changes in Ownership Interest and Their Impact on the Carrying Amount

Changes in ownership interest, such as acquiring additional shares or disposing of some shares, impact the carrying amount of the investment. These changes must be accounted for to ensure accurate reporting.

Steps for Adjusting Ownership Interest:

  1. Acquire Additional Interest: Add the cost of additional shares to the carrying amount.
  2. Dispose of Interest: Remove the proportionate carrying amount related to the disposed shares and recognize any gain or loss on disposal.

Example:

Investor A acquires an additional 10% interest in Company B for $100,000, increasing the total ownership to 40%.

Journal Entry for Additional Interest:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate $100,000
  • Credit: Cash/Bank $100,000

If Investor A subsequently sells a 10% interest (reducing ownership back to 30%) for $120,000, and the carrying amount related to the 10% interest is $105,000:

Journal Entry for Disposal:

  • Debit: Cash/Bank $120,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $105,000
  • Credit: Gain on Sale of Investment $15,000

This entry records the cash received from the sale, removes the proportionate carrying amount of the investment, and recognizes the gain on sale.

Example Calculations and Journal Entries for These Adjustments

Unrealized Intercompany Profits:

  • Example: Inventory sold to investee with $10,000 profit, 30% ownership.
  • Journal Entry:
  • Debit: Income from Associate $3,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $3,000

Impairment:

  • Example: Recoverable amount $20,000 less than carrying amount.
  • Journal Entry:
  • Debit: Impairment Loss $20,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $20,000

Changes in Ownership:

  • Example: Additional 10% interest for $100,000.
  • Journal Entry:
  • Debit: Investment in Associate $100,000
  • Credit: Cash/Bank $100,000
  • Example: Disposal of 10% interest for $120,000, carrying amount $105,000.
  • Journal Entry:
  • Debit: Cash/Bank $120,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $105,000
  • Credit: Gain on Sale of Investment $15,000

By accurately making these adjustments, investors can ensure that their equity method investments are properly reflected in the financial statements, maintaining compliance with accounting standards and providing a true representation of their financial position.

Additional Considerations

Reporting Requirements Under GAAP and IFRS

The accounting and reporting requirements for equity method investments are governed by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in the United States and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) internationally. Both frameworks provide guidelines to ensure consistency and accuracy in financial reporting.

GAAP Reporting Requirements:

  • ASC 323: Under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 323, investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method when significant influence is present.
  • Recognition of Profits and Losses: The investor’s share of the investee’s profits and losses is recognized in the investor’s income statement.
  • Adjustments: The carrying amount is adjusted for dividends received and other comprehensive income of the investee.

IFRS Reporting Requirements:

  • IAS 28: Under International Accounting Standard (IAS) 28, investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method.
  • Significant Influence: The criteria for significant influence are similar to GAAP, generally involving ownership of 20% to 50% of the voting power.
  • Share of Profits and Losses: The investor’s share of the investee’s profits and losses is recognized in the investor’s income statement.

Disclosures Related to Equity Method Investments

Both GAAP and IFRS require detailed disclosures for equity method investments to provide transparency and useful information to users of financial statements.

Required Disclosures:

  • Nature of the Relationship: Describe the nature of the relationship between the investor and the investee.
  • Carrying Amount: Disclose the carrying amount of each investment.
  • Share of Profits and Losses: Present the investor’s share of the investee’s profits or losses.
  • Dividends Received: Disclose the amount of dividends received from the investee.
  • Financial Information: Provide summarized financial information of the investee, including assets, liabilities, revenue, and profit or loss.
  • Significant Influence: Explain the basis for determining significant influence if the ownership percentage is less than 20% or more than 50%.

Impact of Currency Exchange Rates on Foreign Investments

For equity method investments in foreign entities, currency exchange rates can significantly impact the carrying amount and the investor’s share of profits or losses. Foreign currency fluctuations must be accounted for to ensure accurate financial reporting.

Accounting for Currency Exchange Rates:

  1. Initial Recognition: The investment is initially recognized in the investor’s functional currency at the exchange rate on the date of acquisition.
  2. Subsequent Measurement: The carrying amount is adjusted for the investor’s share of the investee’s profits or losses, translated at the exchange rate on the reporting date.
  3. Dividends and Other Adjustments: Dividends received and other adjustments are also translated at the exchange rate on the date of the transaction.
  4. Foreign Exchange Gains or Losses: Any resulting foreign exchange gains or losses are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in the income statement, depending on the nature of the investment and the reporting framework.

Example:

Investor A holds a 30% interest in a foreign company with a functional currency different from the investor’s reporting currency. At the end of the reporting period, the investee reports a profit of 1,000,000 foreign currency units (FCU). The exchange rate at the reporting date is 1 FCU = 1.2 USD.

Calculation:
Investor A’s Share of Profit = 30% x 1,000,000 FCU = 300,000 FCU
Translated Amount = 300,000 FCU x 1.2 USD/FCU = 360,000 USD

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate $360,000
  • Credit: Income from Associate $360,000

By carefully considering these additional factors, investors can ensure comprehensive and accurate reporting of their equity method investments, maintaining compliance with accounting standards and providing valuable information to stakeholders.

Practical Examples and Case Studies

Detailed Example of Calculating the Carrying Amount of an Equity Method Investment

To illustrate the calculation of the carrying amount of an equity method investment, let’s consider Investor A who acquires a 30% interest in Company B for $500,000 at the beginning of the year. During the year, Company B reports a net income of $200,000 and declares dividends of $50,000.

Steps for Calculation:

  1. Initial Recognition: Record the initial investment at cost.
  2. Share of Net Income: Calculate Investor A’s share of Company B’s net income.
  3. Dividends Received: Adjust the carrying amount for dividends received.

Initial Recognition:

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate $500,000
  • Credit: Cash/Bank $500,000

Share of Net Income:

Investor A’s share of Company B’s net income:
Investor A’s Share of Net Income = 30% x $200,000 = $60,000

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Investment in Associate $60,000
  • Credit: Income from Associate $60,000

Dividends Received:

Investor A’s share of dividends:
Investor A’s Share of Dividends = 30% x $50,000 = $15,000

Journal Entry:

  • Debit: Cash/Bank $15,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $15,000

Carrying Amount Calculation:

Initial Investment = $500,000
+ Share of Net Income = $60,000
– Dividends Received = $15,000
= Carrying Amount = $545,000

At the end of the year, the carrying amount of the investment in Company B is $545,000.

Case Studies Illustrating Complex Scenarios and Their Solutions

Case Study 1: Partial Disposal of Investment

Investor A initially owns a 40% interest in Company C, acquired for $800,000. Mid-year, Investor A sells a 10% interest for $250,000. Company C reports a net income of $300,000 for the year and pays dividends of $100,000.

Initial Carrying Amount:
$800,000

Share of Net Income (Before Sale):
40% of $300,000 = $120,000

Adjustment for Sold Interest:
New Ownership = 30%
Carrying Amount Sold = 10% / 40% x $800,000 = $200,000
Gain on Sale = $250,000 – $200,000 = $50,000

Journal Entry for Sale:

  • Debit: Cash/Bank $250,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $200,000
  • Credit: Gain on Sale of Investment $50,000

Share of Net Income (After Sale):
30% of $300,000 = $90,000

Dividends Received:
30% of $100,000 = $30,000

Journal Entries:

  • For Net Income (Before Sale):
  • Debit: Investment in Associate $120,000
  • Credit: Income from Associate $120,000
  • For Net Income (After Sale):
  • Debit: Investment in Associate $90,000
  • Credit: Income from Associate $90,000
  • For Dividends:
  • Debit: Cash/Bank $30,000
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $30,000

Carrying Amount Calculation:
Initial Investment = $800,000
+ Net Income (Before Sale) = $120,000
– Carrying Amount Sold = $200,000
+ Net Income (After Sale) = $90,000
– Dividends Received = $30,000
= Carrying Amount = $780,000

Case Study 2: Impairment and Foreign Currency Impact

Investor B owns a 35% interest in a foreign company, acquired for $700,000. The investee reports a loss of 500,000 foreign currency units (FCU) for the year. The exchange rate at year-end is 1 FCU = 1.5 USD. An impairment test shows the recoverable amount is $400,000.

Share of Net Loss:
35% of 500,000 FCU = 175,000 FCU
Translated Amount = 175,000 FCU x 1.5 USD/FCU = $262,500

Journal Entry for Net Loss:

  • Debit: Loss from Associate $262,500
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $262,500

Impairment:
Carrying Amount (After Loss) = $700,000 – $262,500 = $437,500
Impairment Loss = $437,500 – $400,000 = $37,500

Journal Entry for Impairment:

  • Debit: Impairment Loss $37,500
  • Credit: Investment in Associate $37,500

Carrying Amount Calculation:
Initial Investment = $700,000
– Net Loss = $262,500
– Impairment Loss = $37,500
= Carrying Amount = $400,000

These examples and case studies demonstrate the practical application of the equity method in various scenarios, ensuring that investors can accurately calculate and report the carrying amount of their investments.

Common Mistakes and Pitfalls

Common Errors in Calculating and Reporting Equity Method Investments

Despite the straightforward nature of the equity method, several common errors can occur in calculating and reporting these investments. These mistakes can lead to inaccurate financial statements and potential non-compliance with accounting standards.

1. Incorrect Initial Recognition

  • Error: Failing to include all acquisition costs in the initial investment value, such as legal and consulting fees.
  • Impact: Understating the initial carrying amount, leading to inaccurate subsequent adjustments.

2. Miscalculating the Share of Profits or Losses

  • Error: Using incorrect ownership percentages or failing to update ownership percentages after changes in the investee’s equity.
  • Impact: Overstating or understating the share of profits or losses, affecting the carrying amount and income statement.

3. Ignoring Unrealized Intercompany Profits

  • Error: Failing to eliminate unrealized profits from intercompany transactions.
  • Impact: Overstating the investment’s carrying amount and the investor’s share of profits.

4. Incorrect Treatment of Dividends

  • Error: Recognizing dividends received as income instead of reducing the carrying amount of the investment.
  • Impact: Overstating income and the carrying amount of the investment.

5. Not Recognizing Impairment Losses

  • Error: Failing to perform impairment tests when indicators of impairment exist or incorrectly calculating the recoverable amount.
  • Impact: Overstating the carrying amount, leading to inflated asset values on the balance sheet.

6. Exchange Rate Miscalculations

  • Error: Incorrectly translating foreign currency amounts or failing to account for foreign exchange gains or losses.
  • Impact: Misstating the carrying amount and the investor’s share of profits or losses in the financial statements.

Tips to Avoid These Mistakes

To ensure accurate calculation and reporting of equity method investments, it is essential to implement best practices and remain vigilant for potential pitfalls.

1. Thoroughly Verify Initial Costs

  • Tip: Include all direct acquisition costs, such as legal, consulting, and transaction fees, in the initial investment value.
  • Action: Review and reconcile acquisition documents to ensure all costs are captured.

2. Regularly Update Ownership Percentages

  • Tip: Maintain accurate records of ownership percentages and update them promptly after any changes.
  • Action: Implement a system for tracking ownership changes and regularly review equity investment agreements.

3. Eliminate Unrealized Intercompany Profits

  • Tip: Identify and eliminate unrealized profits from intercompany transactions to prevent overstating profits.
  • Action: Conduct regular intercompany transaction reviews and adjust the carrying amount accordingly.

4. Correctly Treat Dividends

  • Tip: Reduce the carrying amount of the investment by the amount of dividends received instead of recognizing them as income.
  • Action: Establish clear accounting policies for dividend treatment and provide training to accounting personnel.

5. Conduct Regular Impairment Tests

  • Tip: Perform impairment tests whenever indicators of impairment are present and accurately calculate the recoverable amount.
  • Action: Develop a schedule for regular impairment testing and document the process and assumptions used.

6. Accurately Handle Foreign Currency Transactions

  • Tip: Use the correct exchange rates for translating foreign currency amounts and account for foreign exchange gains or losses.
  • Action: Implement robust procedures for tracking and applying exchange rates and provide training on foreign currency accounting.

By being aware of these common mistakes and implementing the suggested tips, investors can ensure that their equity method investments are accurately calculated and reported, maintaining compliance with accounting standards and providing reliable financial information.

Conclusion

Recap of Key Points

Throughout this article, we have explored the critical aspects of calculating the carrying amount of equity method investments. We began with an understanding of the equity method of accounting, including the criteria for significant influence and the differences between the equity method and other investment accounting methods. We delved into the initial recognition and measurement, followed by subsequent adjustments for profits, losses, and dividends. We discussed additional considerations such as GAAP and IFRS reporting requirements, disclosures, and the impact of currency exchange rates. Practical examples and case studies were provided to illustrate the application of these concepts, and common mistakes and pitfalls were identified along with tips to avoid them.

Importance of Accurate Calculation and Reporting

Accurately calculating and reporting the carrying amount of equity method investments is essential for several reasons. It ensures that financial statements provide a true and fair view of the investor’s financial position and performance. Accurate calculations help in making informed business decisions, such as assessing the profitability and stability of investees. Additionally, compliance with accounting standards like GAAP and IFRS is crucial to avoid legal and financial repercussions. Proper reporting also enhances transparency and trust among stakeholders, including investors, regulators, and financial analysts.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, mastering the equity method of accounting requires a thorough understanding of initial recognition, subsequent measurement, and adjustments to the carrying amount. By following best practices and avoiding common mistakes, investors can ensure accurate financial reporting and maintain compliance with accounting standards. As business environments and financial markets evolve, staying updated with the latest accounting guidelines and continuously refining calculation and reporting processes will be vital. Accurate and transparent financial information not only aids in effective decision-making but also contributes to the overall integrity and efficiency of financial markets.

References and Further Reading

List of Authoritative Sources and Standards

  1. GAAP Standards:
  1. IFRS Standards:

Additional Reading Materials

  1. Books and Textbooks:
  • “Intermediate Accounting” by Donald E. Kieso, Jerry J. Weygandt, and Terry D. Warfield
  • “Financial Accounting” by Robert Libby, Patricia Libby, and Frank Hodge
  • “International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Workbook and Guide” by Abbas A. Mirza
  1. Articles and Publications:
  1. Online Resources and Guides:

These references and additional reading materials provide comprehensive insights and detailed guidelines on the equity method of accounting, ensuring that you have access to authoritative sources and practical guidance for accurate calculation and reporting of equity method investments.

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